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data concept

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The so-called data is a symbol that describes things, a physical symbol or a combination of these physical symbols that records the nature, state and relationship of objective things.

In a computer system, the combination of various characters, letters, and digital symbols, graphics, images, video, audio, etc., are collectively referred to as data. After processing, data becomes information. In real life, data is ubiquitous, such as weather forecasts, resident ID numbers, courier numbers, and train schedules, which contain a lot of data. People understand the world and exchange information by analyzing these data.

Data is a record of everything in the world. Anything that can be measured or classified can be represented by data. After the data is collected, it can be studied and analyzed to obtain valuable information. Data and information have both connections and distinctions. Data is the manifestation and carrier of information, and information is the connotation of data. Information is loaded on the data and interprets the specific meaning of the data.

Data and information are inseparable, information depends on data to express, and data expresses information vividly and concretely. Data is symbol and physical, information is data obtained after processing the original data and affects decision-making, and information is the meaningful representation of data. People also often rely on information to make predictions, or if not to make predictions, at least to make speculation more grounded.

Information has been transformed into knowledge when it is transformed into a set of rules that help to better understand a particular mechanism, which can be used to predict the evolution of events.

type of data

Data can be divided into the following two different types.

  • Categorical: Categorical and ordinal.
  • Numeric: discrete and continuous.

Categorical data refers to the values ​​or observations that can be divided into different groups or categories, usually can be divided into two types, namely Nominal and Ordinal. The categories of ordinal data have no inherent order, whereas ordinal data have a pre-specified order.

Numerical data refers to the values ​​or observations obtained by measurement, and can usually be divided into two types, namely discrete and continuous. Discrete data refers to data that can only be counted by the number of units of measurement, such as the number of employees, the number of equipment, etc. On the contrary, continuous data refers to data that can take any value within a certain range, the values ​​are continuous, and two adjacent values ​​can be infinitely divided (that is, infinite values ​​can be taken). For example: anthropometric measurements of height and weight, etc.

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